In The Name Of God
The Books That Authored And Translated by
هیرسوتنون،عصاره گیاه توسکا(نواحی مرطوب مانند مازندران)تکثیر سلولهای سرطانی پروستات را مهار می کند.
Edited by:Mohammad Hezarkhani MD,Urologist
Board-Certified of Urology,Tehran University ,The Member of Iranian Urological Association
Madaen Hospital Tehran Iran
Tehranclinic Hospital Tehran Iran
www.Hezarkhani.blogfa.com hosted in Washington DC, United States
Alder is the common name of a genus of flowering plants (Alnus) belonging to the birch family Betulaceae. The genus comprises about 30 species of monoecious trees and shrubs, a few reaching a large size, distributed throughout the north temperate zone with a few species extending into Central America and the northern Ande.
Alders are deciduous, and the leaves are alternate, simple, and serrated. The flowers are catkins with elongate male catkins on the same plant as shorter female catkins, often before leaves appear; they are mainly wind-pollinated, but also visited by bees to a small extent. These trees differ from the birches (Betula, the other genus in the family) in that the female catkins are woody and do not disintegrate at maturity, opening to release the seeds in a similar manner to many conifer cones.
The largest species are red alder (A. rubra) on the west coast of North America, and black alder (A. glutinosa), native to most of Europe and widely introduced elsewhere, both reaching over 30 m. By contrast, the widespread Alnus viridis (green alder) is rarely more than a 5-m-tall shrub.
Sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS region were used to estimate phylogenetic relationships of Alnus. Researchers recognize three major clades in Alnus, including subgenera Alnobetula, Clethropsis, and Alnus; subgenus Alnobetula is sister to subgenera Clethropsis and Alnus. The eastern Asian subgenus or section Cremastogyne is embedded in the subgenus Alnus clade. Alnus nepalensis is part of subgenus Alnus, not subgenus Clethropsis. Alnus maritima is part of subgenus Clethropsis (excl. A. nepalensis).
Long and short branching pattern, sessile winter bud, and 2‐yr phenology are plesiomorphies in Alnus, while 1‐yr floral phenology and fall blooming are derived features. The simple axillary female inflorescence has evolved more than once in Alnus. Central and South American species of Alnus are derived from migrants from eastern Asia via the Bering land bridge and western North America. In subgenus Clethropsis, A. formosana of eastern Asia is more closely related to eastern North American species than to the other Asian species, A. nitida. The low sequence divergence within both the A. incana and A.
viridis species complexes indicates their recent history of diversification in the circumpolar areas. Although specific compounds found in some East Asian traditional medicines have been shown to exhibit bioactive properties, their molecular mechanisms of action remain elusive. The bark of the Alnus species has been used for the treatment of various pathological conditions including hemorrhage, alcoholism, fever, diarrhea, skin diseases, inflammation, and cancer in East Asia for centuries.
In this study, researchers show that hirsutenone, a bioactive compound in Alnus japonica, exhibits anti-cancer effects against prostate cancer through a direct physical inhibition of Akt1/2. Hirsutenone suppressed anchorage-dependent and independent cell growth of PC3 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. Annexin V and Propidium iodide (PI) staining results demonstrated that hirsutenone strongly induces apoptotic cell death in both PC3 and LNCaP cells.
Furthermore, treatment of hirsutenone attenuated phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a downstream substrate of Akt, without affecting Akt phosphorylation. Kinase and pull-down assay results clearly show that hirsutenone inhibits Akt1 and 2 by direct binding in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-noncompetitive manner in vitro and ex vivo.
The results show that hirsutenone suppresses human prostate cancer by targeting Akt1 and 2 as a key component to explain for anti-cancer activity of Alnus species.
1-Mol Carcinog. 2014 Sep 11. doi: 10.1002/mc.22211.
Hirsutenone in Alnus extract inhibits akt activity and suppresses prostate cancer cell proliferation.
3- Alder Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 8 September 2014
2 Adenocarcinoma of the prostate with Gleason pattern 5 on core biopsy: Frequency of diagnosis, morphologic subpatterns, and relation to pattern distribution based on the modified Gleason grading system Human Pathology, September 30, 2014
3 Prognostic impact of definitive local therapy of the primary tumor in men with metastatic prostate cancer at diagnosis: A population-based, propensity score analysis Cancer Epidemiology, September 30, 2014
9 Circulating tumor cell telomerase activity as a prognostic marker for overall survival in SWOG 0421: A phase 3 metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer trial International Journal of Cancer, September 30, 2014
15 Expression profile of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: Correlation with intravesical recurrence following transurethral resection Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, September 30, 2014
18 Clinical significance of tumor-derived IL-1β and IL-18 in localized renal cell carcinoma: Associations with recurrence and survival Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, September 30, 2014
19 A comparison of case volumes among urologic surgeons identified on an industry-sponsored website to an all provider peer group Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, September 30, 2014
20 The preoperative prognostic nutritional index is an independent predictor of survival in patients with renal cell carcinoma Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, September 30, 2014
15 Simultaneous assessment of aneuploidy, polymorphisms, and mitochondrial DNA content in human polar bodies and embryos with the use of a novel microarray platform Fertility and Sterility, September 30, 2014
19 Whether sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation has an effect on pregnancy and miscarriage after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection: A systematic review and meta-analysis Fertility and Sterility, September 30, 2014
3 Patient-reported outcomes and health-related quality of life in prostate cancer treated with a single fraction of high dose rate brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy Clinical Oncology, September 29, 2014
5 Myeloid derived suppressor and dendritic cell subsets are related to clinical outcome in prostate cancer patients treated with prostate GVAX and ipilimumab Full Text Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer, September 29, 2014
18 Optimizing cryopreservation of human spermatogonial stem cells: Comparing the effectiveness of testicular tissue and single cell suspension cryopreservation Fertility and Sterility, September 29, 2014
Case Reports in Urology
Metastatic Prostate Adenocarcinoma Posing as Urothelial Carcinoma of the Right Ureter: A Case Report and Literature Review
Tian-bao Huang,1,2 Yang Yan,1 Huan Liu,1,2 Jian-ping Che,1,2 Guang-chun Wang,1,2 Min Liu,1,2 Jun-hua Zheng,1,2 and Xu-dong Yao1,2/1Department of Urology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University, 301 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072, China/2Department of First Clinical Medical College, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, China/13 August 2014
This is a case report of a 67-year-old patient with distant metastasis of prostate cancer to the right ureter which caused hydronephrosis. At the beginning, both of the cytology of the morning urine and imaging findings were consistent with urothelial carcinoma. Nephroureterectomy was subsequently performed. Interestingly, the pathological examination of the excised ureter revealed that the malignancy was derived from the prostate. No skeletal metastasis was detected. However, after four months of follow-up, several abnormal signal shadows were reported in skeletal scintigraphy and the prostate specific antigen (PSA) was gradually increasing. We present such a case for its unique presentation. A review of the literature is also provided.
SOURCE: Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 230852, 5 pages
Doses of at least 25 mcg linked to decreased nocturnal voids, increased time to first void
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 24, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Desmopressin offers a modest benefit for treating nocturia in generally healthy adults, according to a systematic review published in the September issue of The Journal of Urology.
Mark H. Ebell, M.D., from the University of Georgia in Athens, and colleagues conducted a systematic literature review to examine the benefits and harms of desmopressin as treatment for nocturia. A total of 10 articles involving 2,191 patients met the inclusion criteria of parallel group design, randomized, controlled trials with information on one or more benefit or harm of desmopressin in patients with nocturia. The studies were generally of high quality, although four studies were at high risk for bias.
The researchers found that there were decreases in nocturnal voids and increased time to first void with desmopressin doses of 25 mcg or greater. Compared with placebo, a 100-mcg dose provided just over one hour of additional sleep before the first void and 0.72 fewer voids per night. There was no significantly increased benefit with higher doses. The most common adverse effects were hyponatremia (risk ratio, 5.1) and headache (risk ratio, 4.3), while serious adverse effects were rare.
Young women should be screened yearly for the sexually transmitted disease, experts say
THURSDAY, Sept. 25, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- An estimated 1.8 million Americans aged 14 to 39 are infected with Chlamydia trachomatis, and many don't know it, according to research published in the Sept. 26 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
The CDC report was based on statistics from the 2007 to 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Rates of infection are highest among young women. An estimated 4.7 percent of women aged 14 to 24 were infected with the disease in 2012.
In addition, the researchers found that infection rates were highest among black women aged 14 to 24 -- at 13.5 percent. Among Mexican-American women, the rate of infection was 4.5 percent. And among white women, it was 1.8 percent. The overall prevalence of chlamydia among those aged 14 to 39 has remained virtually unchanged for nearly a decade. From 2007 to 2008, the infection rate was 1.6 percent; from 2009 to 2010, it was 1.7 percent; and from 2011 to 2012, it was 1.9 percent.
"Chlamydia is common, and it's especially common in young women. Most young women who are infected don't know they have it," study author Elizabeth Torrone, Ph.D., an epidemiologist with the CDC's division of STD prevention, told HealthDay. "This report really underscores the need for young women to be screened for chlamydia annually."
Findings based on large retrospective study of patients with type 2 diabetes
FRIDAY, Sept. 26, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with a decreased risk of cancer among individuals with type 2 diabetes, according to a study published online Sept. 11 in Diabetes Care.
Wenhui Zhao, M.D., from the Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge, La., and colleagues retrospectively analyzed data from a cohort of 14,169 men and 23,176 women with type 2 diabetes. Patients were categorized by HDL-C level to assess cancer risk.
The researchers found that over 6.4 years of follow-up, 3,711 patients with type 2 diabetes were diagnosed with cancer. There was a significant inverse association between HDL-C and the risk of cancer among both men and women. By HDL-C level at baseline, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of cancer were 1.00 for <30; 0.87 at 30 to 39.9; 0.95 at 40 to 49.9; 1.01 at 50 to 59.9; 0.61 at 60 to 69.9; 0.45 at 70 to 79.9; and 0.37 at ≥80 mg/dL in men (Ptrend = 0.027). For women, the corresponding hazard ratios were 1.00, 0.98, 0.88, 0.85, 0.84, 0.86, and 0.84 (Ptrend = 0.025). The association remained when stratified by race, body mass index, smoking status, or medication use; however, the inverse association was substantially weakened after excluding patients who died of or were diagnosed with cancer during the first two years of follow-up.
"The study suggests an inverse association of HDL-C with cancer risk among men and women with type 2 diabetes, whereas the effect of HDL-C was partially mediated by reverse causation," the authors write.
4 Assessment of the bone scan index in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of tasquinimod in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, September 26, 2014
5 Effectiveness and safety of cabazitaxel plus prednisolone chemotherapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostatic carcinoma: Data on Korean patients obtained by the cabazitaxel compassionate-use program Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, September 26, 2014
11 Impact of race in a predominantly African-American population of patients with low/intermediate risk prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy within an equal access care institution International Urology and Nephrology, September 26, 2014
14 Incidence, characteristics, treatment strategies, and oncologic outcomes of synchronous bilateral upper tract urothelial carcinoma in the Chinese population Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, September 26, 2014
18 Comprehensive meiotic segregation analysis of a 4-breakpoint t(1;3;6) complex chromosome rearrangement using single sperm array comparative genomic hybridization and FISH Reproductive BioMedicine Online, September 26, 2014
5 Effects of a contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinylestradiol on blood pressure, metabolic profile and neurohumoral axis in hypertensive women at reproductive age European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, September 26, 2014
12 Primary results of rose/trio-12, a randomized placebo-controlled phase iii trial evaluating the addition of ramucirumab to first-line docetaxel chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer Journal of Clinical Oncology, September 26, 2014
13 Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy with mefloquine in hiv-infected women receiving cotrimoxazole prophylaxis: a multicenter randomized placebo-controlled trial Full Text PLoS Medicine, September 26, 2014
Nature Genetics news Sep.26,2014
Hypospadias is a common congenital condition in boys in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis. We performed a genome-wide association study on 1,006 surgery-confirmed hypospadias cases and 5,486 controls from Denmark. After replication genotyping of an additional 1,972 cases and 1,812 controls from Denmark, the Netherlands and Sweden, 18 genomic regions showed independent association with P < 5 × 10−8.
Together, these loci explain 9% of the liability to developing this condition. Several of the identified regions harbor genes with key roles in embryonic development (including HOXA4, IRX5, IRX6 and EYA1). Subsequent pathway analysis with GRAIL and DEPICT provided additional insight into possible genetic mechanisms causing hypospadias.