In The Name Of God
The Books That Authored And Translated by
تغذیه درفرازهای گونا گون علم پزشکی ازنگاه ژورنال آمریکایی تغذیه بالینی
Cardiovascular disease risk
Cardiovascular disease and vitamin D supplementation: trial analysis, systematic review, and meta-analysis Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 746-755; First published online July 23, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.082602
Serum magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium are associated with risk of incident heart failure: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 756-764; First published online July 16, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.085167
Nutritional status, dietary intake, and body composition
Low-calorie sweeteners and body weight and composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 765-777; First published online June 18, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.082826
Effect of egg ingestion on trimethylamine-N-oxide production in humans: a randomized, controlled, dose-response study Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 778-786; First published online June 18, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.087692
Effect of dietary adherence on the body weight plateau: a mathematical model incorporating intermittent compliance with energy intake prescription Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 787-795; First published online July 30, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.079822
Moderate amounts of fructose- or glucose-sweetened beverages do not differentially alter metabolic health in male and female adolescents Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 796-805; First published online July 16, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.081232
An objective estimate of energy intake during weight gain using the intake-balance method Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 806-812; First published online July 23, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.087122
Vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals
Circulating non–transferrin-bound iron after oral administration of supplemental and fortification doses of iron to healthy women: a randomized study Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 813-820; First published online July 23, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.081505
Growth, development, and pediatrics
Height-for-age z scores increase despite increasing height deficits among children in 5 developing countries Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 821-825; First published online July 9, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.084368
FADS single-nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with behavioral outcomes in children, and the effect varies between sexes and is dependent on PPAR genotype Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 826-832; First published online July 30, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.087882
Digestive and liver diseases
Fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or indexes of liver health: a systematic review and meta-analysis Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 833-849; First published online August 6, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.086314
Growth hormone enhances fat-free mass and glutamine availability in patients with short-bowel syndrome: an ancillary double-blind, randomized crossover study Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 850-858; First published online July 30, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.071845
Initiation of nutritional support is delayed in critically ill obese patients: a multicenter cohort study Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 859-866; First published online July 30, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.088187
Accuracy of prediction equations for serum osmolarity in frail older people with and without diabetes Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 867-876; First published online July 16, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.086769
Nutritional epidemiology and public health
Dietary patterns and mortality in a Chinese population Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 877-883; First published online July 23, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.086124
No food for thought: moderating effects of delay discounting and future time perspective on the relation between income and food insecurity Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 884-890; First published online July 9, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.079772
Evaluation of various biomarkers as potential mediators of the association between coffee consumption and incident type 2 diabetes in the EPIC-Potsdam Study Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 891-900; First published online July 23, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.080317
Consumption of added sugars among US children and adults by food purchase location and food source Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 901-907; First published online July 16, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.089458
25-Hydroxyvitamin D in African-origin populations at varying latitudes challenges the construct of a physiologic norm Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 908-914; First published online July 9, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.066605
Vitamin E and C supplementation and risk of cancer in men: posttrial follow-up in the Physicians’ Health Study II randomized trial Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 915-923; First published online July 9, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.085480
Differences in survival associated with processed and with nonprocessed red meat consumption Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 924-929; First published online July 16, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.086249
Skin and plasma carotenoid response to a provided intervention diet high in vegetables and fruit: uptake and depletion kinetics Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 930-937; First published online July 9, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.086900
Association of self-reported sleep duration with eating behaviors of American adults: NHANES 2005–2010 Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 938-947; First published online July 23, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.085191
Processed and unprocessed red meat consumption and hypertension in women Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 948-952; First published online July 30, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.080598
Soda consumption and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women in the Nurses’ Health Study Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 953-958; First published online August 6, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.083352
Sugar-sweetened soda consumption and risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis in women Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 959-967; First published online July 16, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.086918
Decline in childhood iron deficiency after interruption of malaria transmission in highland Kenya Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 968-973; First published online July 30, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.087114
Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on physical performance in healthy elderly women involved in a weekly exercise program: a randomized controlled trial Am J Clin Nutr 2014 100: 3 974-981; First published online July 9, 2014. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.080168
Source:The American Journal of CLINICAL NUTRITION September 1, 2014; 100 (3)
Popular Science articles about Health & Medicine
As anyone who has bitten into a chili pepper knows, its burning spiciness -- though irresistible to some -- is intolerable to others. Scientists exploring the chili pepper's effect are...
Heart failure is a major public health burden in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), with substantial variation in the presentation, causes, management, and outcomes of heart failure across different...
While a rise in cesarean section (C-section) delivery rates due to breech presentation has improved neonatal outcome, 40% of term breech deliveries in the Netherlands are planned vaginal deliveries. According...
A drug that is commonly used to treat anxiety in humans and which regularly finds its way into surface waters through wastewater effluence has been shown to reduce mortality rates...
Researchers in the Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science (VUIIS) have achieved the first conclusive non-invasive measurement of neural signaling in the spinal cords of healthy human volunteers.
Exposure of pregnant mice to the pesticide DDT is linked to an increased risk of obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol and related conditions in female offspring later in life, according to...
A new online tool will help doctors predict which patients are most likely to develop diabetes.
U.S. hospitalizations and deaths from heart disease and stroke dropped significantly in the last decade, according to new research in the American Heart Association journal Circulation.
A stroke therapy using stem cells extracted from patients' bone marrow has shown promising results in the first trial of its kind in humans.
New research from Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) reveals taking aspirin can significantly reduce the risk of developing -- and dying from -- the major cancers of the digestive...
Consumption of a type of starch that acts like fiber may help reduce colorectal cancer risk associated with a high red meat diet, according to a study published in Cancer...
“Fist bumping” transmits significantly fewer bacteria than either handshaking or high-fiving, while still addressing the cultural expectation of hand-to-hand contact between patients and clinicians, according to a study published in...
Source:(e)Science news August 21,2014
Latest research news of cancer August 21,2014
Denervation suppresses gastric tumorigenesis
Chun-Mei Zhao1,*, Yoku Hayakawa2,*, Yosuke Kodama1, Sureshkumar Muthupalani3, Christoph B. Westphalen2,4, Gøran T. Andersen1,5, Arnar Flatberg1, Helene Johannessen1, Richard A. Friedman6, Bernhard W. Renz2, Arne K. Sandvik1,7, Vidar Beisvag1, Hiroyuki Tomita8, Akira Hara8, Michael Quante9, Zhishan Li10, Michael D. Gershon10, Kazuhiro Kaneko11, James G. Fox3, Timothy C. Wang2,† and Duan Chen1,†1Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim 7491, Norway. 2Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032–3802, USA. 3Division of Comparative Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, MA 02139, USA. 4Medizinische Klinik III, Klinikum der Universität München, Campus Groβhadern, 81377 München, Germany. 5Department of Surgery, St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim 7006, Norway. 6Biomedical Informatics Shared Resource, Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA. 7Department of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim 7006, Norway. 8Department of Tumor Pathology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu 501-1112, Japan. 9II. Medizinische Klinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, München 81675, Germany. 10Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA. 11Department of Gastroenterology and Endoscopy Division, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba 277-8577, Japan.
The nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of epithelial homeostasis and has also been postulated to play a role in tumorigenesis. We provide evidence that proper innervation is critical at all stages of gastric tumorigenesis.
In three separate mouse models of gastric cancer, surgical or pharmacological denervation of the stomach (bilateral or unilateral truncal vagotomy, or local injection of botulinum toxin type A) markedly reduced tumor incidence and progression, but only in the denervated portion of the stomach. Vagotomy or botulinum toxin type A treatment also enhanced the therapeutic effects of systemic chemotherapy and prolonged survival. Denervation-induced suppression of tumorigenesis was associated with inhibition of Wnt signaling and suppression of stem cell expansion.
In gastric organoid cultures, neurons stimulated growth in a Wnt-mediated fashion through cholinergic signaling. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockout of the muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor suppressed gastric tumorigenesis. In gastric cancer patients, tumor stage correlated with neural density and activated Wnt signaling, whereas vagotomy reduced the risk of gastric cancer.
Together, our findings suggest that vagal innervation contributes to gastric tumorigenesis via M3 receptor–mediated Wnt signaling in the stem cells, and that denervation might represent a feasible strategy for the control of gastric cancer.
Source: Sci Transl Med 20 August 2014:
Vol. 6, Issue 250, p. 250ra115
Sci. Transl. Med. DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3009569
Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science
Infertility news August 21,2014
Deficient human β-defensin 1 underlies male infertility associated with poor sperm motility and genital tract infection
Ruiying Diao1,2,3,*, Kin Lam Fok2,*, Hao Chen1,2,3,*, Mei Kuen Yu2, Yonggang Duan1,3, Chin Man Chung2, Zhao Li3,4, Hanwei Wu1, Zesong Li1, Hu Zhang3,4, Ziliang Ji3,4, Wanhua Zhen1, Chi Fai Ng5, Yaoting Gui3, Zhiming Cai1,3,† and Hsiao Chang Chan2,6,†1Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Genitourinary Tumor, Shenzhen Second People’s Hospital, First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518035, China. 2Epithelial Cell Biology Research Center, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of Ministry of Education of China, School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China. 3Guangdong and Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Male Reproductive Medicine and Genetics, Institute of Urology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Shenzhen 518036, China. 4Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, China. 5Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China. 6Sichuan University–The Chinese University of Hong Kong Joint Laboratory for Reproductive Medicine, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Sichuan University, Sichuan 610017, China.
Genital tract infection and reduced sperm motility are considered two pivotal etiological factors for male infertility associated with leukocytospermia and asthenozoospermia, respectively.
We demonstrate that the amount of human β-defensin 1 (DEFB1) in sperm from infertile men exhibiting either leukocytospermia or asthenozoospermia, both of which are associated with reduced motility and reduced bactericidal activity in sperm, is much lower compared to that in normal fertile sperm.
Interference with DEFB1 function also decreases both motility and bactericidal activity in normal sperm, whereas treatment with recombinant DEFB1 markedly restores DEFB1 expression, bactericidal activity, sperm quality, and egg-penetrating ability in sperm from both asthenozoospermia and leukocytospermia patients. DEFB1 interacts with chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6) in sperm and triggers Ca2+ mobilization, which is important for sperm motility. Interference with CCR6 function also reduces motility and bactericidal activity of normal sperm.
The present finding explains a common defect in male infertility associated with both asthenozoospermia and leukocytospermia, indicating a dual role of DEFB1 in defending male fertility.
These results also suggest that the expression of DEFB1 and CCR6 may have diagnostic potential and that treatment of defective sperm with recombinant DEFB1 protein may be a feasible therapeutic approach for male infertility associated with poor sperm motility and genital tract infection.
Source:Sci Transl Med 13 August 2014:
Vol. 6, Issue 249, p. 249ra108
Sci. Transl. Med. DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3009071
درمان سرطان متاستاتیک مقاوم به درمان کستراسیون پروستات
May 26, 2014
Many things have changed in the treatment of prostate cancer over the last several years. This is especially true in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This is prostate cancer that has failed a primary treatment (surgery, radiation etc.) and has gone on to fail hormonal treatment (androgen blockade or castration). This also applies to patients who present with metastatic disease and have failed hormonal treatment. Prior to the onset of use of chemotherapy for these patients the average life span was about 8 months. Chemotherapy improved on this but is not curative.
Since 2010 several new treatments have become available for patients with mCRPC. The following is a brief description of the newest treatments.
- Abiraterone Acetate (Zytiga) – Zytiga inhibits the production of testosterone precursors and decreases the levels of testosterone. It is usually given with prednisone. Zytiga was originally indicated in patients who had failed docetaxel (chemotherapy) but more recent studies have shown benefit in the pre-chemo patient. One study showed that the radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) was over 16 months in the Abiraterone and prednisone group versus 8 months in the control group.1
- Enzalutamide (Xtandi) – Formally known as MDV3100 this medication is second generation androgen-receptor blocker. It works both on the outside and inside of the cell. It was initially indicated in post-chemotherapy patients for mCRPC but studies have shown benefit in the pre-chemo patient also. The PREVAIL study showed that on average, enzalutamide delayed the need for chemotherapy by 17 months (28 vs 11). It also showed that use of this drug delayed radiographic progression by 81%.2
- Radium 223 Dichloride (Xofigo) – Although this is an injection it is actually a type of radiation called alpha radiation. This treatment is meant to target prostate cancer cells in the bones. Bones with prostate cancer preferentially absorb Xofigo. Radium then releases the alpha radiation, which is very short range. The idea is to kill the active cancer cells with minimal damage to normal bone. This should be more targeted than strontium-89, which has been used in the past. Studies have shown increased survival in patients with mCRPC and bone metastasis. 3
- Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) – Sipuleucel-T is a therapeutic cancer vaccine for prostate cancer. It is meant for asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients with mCRPC. It is individualized to each patient and requires blood donation. The blood is activated at the lab and then re-infused later in the week. The treatment is provided 3 times over the period of a month. It is the first FDA approved therapeutic cancer vaccine (as opposed to a preventative vaccine). Overall survival was increased by the use of Provenge in symptomatic or minimally symptomatic mCRPC patients.4
Questions to hopefully be clarified in the future are how to best sequence these new treatments? When a patient fails hormones, which medication should be used first or should chemo be initiated? Which medication provides the best value? Should these medications be used alone or in combination? While there are many questions outstanding these recent additions to the prostate cancer armamentarium will surely benefit many patients.
1- Rathkopf DE, Smith MR, De Bono JS, et al. Updated interim analysis (IA) of COU-AA-302, a randomized phase III study of abiraterone acetate (AA) in patients (pts) with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) without prior chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(suppl 6, abstr 5).
2-Beer TM et. al. Enzalutamide in men with chemotherapy-naive metastatic prostate cancer (mCRPC): Results of phase III PREVAIL study. J Clin Oncol 32, 2014 (suppl 4; abstr LBA1^).
3-Parker C et al. Alpha Emitter Radium-223 and Survival in Metastatic Prostate Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2013; 369: 213.
4-Longo DL (July 2010). "New therapies for castration-resistant prostate cancer". N. Engl. J. Med. 363 (5): 479–81.
Latest Medical News (Gynaecology/Obstetrics) from Medical News Today|August 20,2014
Medical News Today
1 Can we expand active surveillance criteria to include biopsy Gleason 3+4 prostate cancer? A multi-institutional study of 2,323 patients Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, August 20, 2014
2 Positive association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and prostate cancer risk: New findings from an updated meta-analysis Journal of Cancer Research & Clinical Oncology, August 20, 2014 Evidence Based Medicine
4 Individual patient data from registrational trials of silodosin in the treatment of non-neurogenic male lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic enlargement: Subgroup analyses of efficacy and safety data BJU International, August 20, 2014
12 A comprehensive analysis of the cellular and EBV-specific micrornaome in primary CNS PTLD identifies different patterns among EBV-associated tumors American Journal of Transplantation, August 20, 2014
Edited by:Mohammad Hezarkhani MD,Urologist
Board-Certified of Urology,Tehran University ,The Member of Iranian Urological Association
Madaen Hospital Tehran Iran
Tehranclinic Hospital Tehran Iran
www.Hezarkhani.blogfa.com hosted in Washington DC, United States
August 20. 2014
Arterial erectile dysfunction (ED) is commonly associated with classic cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia and obesity. However, some patients with arterial ED do not present any cardiovascular risk factor.
Vitronectin is an abundant glycoprotein found in serum and the extracellular matrix and promotes cell adhesion and spreading, inhibits the membrane-damaging effect of the terminal cytolytic complement pathway, and binds to several serpins (serine protease inhibitors). It is a secreted protein and exists in either a single chain form or a clipped, two chain form held together by a disulfide bond. Vitronectin has been speculated to be involved in hemostasis and tumor malignancy.
The somatomedin B domain of vitronectin binds to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and stabilizes it. Thus vitronectin serves to regulate proteolysis initiated by plasminogen activation. In addition, vitronectin is a component ofplatelets and is, thus, involved in hemostasis.
Vitronectin contains an RGD (45-47) sequence, which is a binding site for membrane-bound integrins, e.g., the vitronectin receptor, which serve to anchor cells to the extracellular matrix. The Somatomedin B domain interacts with the urokinase receptor, and this interaction has been implicated in cell migration and signal transduction. High plasma levels of both PAI-1 and the urokinase receptor have been shown to correlate with a negative prognosis for cancer patients. Cell adhesion and migration are directly involved in cancer metastasis, which provides a probable mechanistic explanation for this observation.
As mean platelet volume (MPV) has been shown to be directly related to the cardiovascular risk and the percentage of platelets expressing the vitronectin receptor (αVβ3), involved in the early stages of platelet adhesion, is higher in patients with ED, the present study was undertaken to evaluate MPV and αVβ3 in 15 patients with arterial ED not associated with any cardiovascular risk factor. Their MPV and αVβ3 values were compared with those of men with normal penile haemodynamic.
Patients with arterial ED had a mean value of MPV (11.25 vs. 9.88 fL; p < 0.001) and a percentage of platelets expressing the αVβ3 (7.39 vs. 2.07%; p < 0.001) significantly higher compared to controls. A negative correlation was observed between peak systolic velocity and MPV (r = 0.916; p < 0.001) or αVβ3 (r = 0.930; p < 0.001), whereas MPV and αVβ3 correlated positively (r = 0.908; p < 0.001).
In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that MPV and the percentage of platelet expressing αVβ3 are significantly higher in patients with arterial ED compared to controls. The researchers speculate that these parameters of platelet function may be envisaged as markers of cardiovascular risk in patients with arterial ED.
1- Functional characterization of platelets in patients with arterial erectile dysfunction.La Vignera S1, Condorelli RA, Burgio G, Vicari E, Favilla V, Russo GI, Cimino S, Morgia G, Calogero AEAndrology. 2014 Sep;2(5):709-15. doi: 10.1111/j.2047-2927.2014.00255.x. Epub 2014 Jul 29.© 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.
2-Vitronectin, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 31 January 2014